BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES; PROPOSING A PRACTICAL APPROACH IN RESPONDING FUTURE PANDEMICS.

Basic Medical Sciences can act as organized body or team so as to give
realistic responses to future pandemic consequently contain its deleterious effect.
With regards to this paper, it would be necessary to first, define and explain what a
pandemic is, its effect and consequence of impromptu response to it.
A pandemic is an epidemic of an infectious disease that has spread across a large geographical area, for instance continents or worldwide. It is important to note that a disease or condition is not a pandemic merely because it is widespread or kills many people; It must be infectious. For instance, cancer responsible for many deaths in several regions is not considered a pandemic because it is neither infectious or contagious. The effect of pandemic ranges from health to the socio-economic life of the people. Its degrading effects cannot be overemphasized once it emerges with no quick response to it. Impromptu response to a pandemic leaves an uneasily erasable mark on the walls of the social and economic status of the world at large. Consequences range from irreparable damage of human tissues and organs, loss of jobs to high rate of death. The consequences are more compared to what any inker pens down. So it is of great importance to apply practical approaches to any slight trace of a future pandemic than to sit and die experiencing outplay due to impromptu response to it. Pandemic imprints nothing but pang bagged by its consequences.

The Basic Medical Sciences can on their own small scale stifle any emerging or future pandemic by applying the following responses:
Public Awareness/Education on the Danger of a Pandemic: Basic Medical
Science can organize or create a platform for the education of the public on the
dangers of a pandemic. This is important as the uninformed or carefree public in
most cases are the victims of the first sting of an outbreak (with pandemic potential). This education or orientation program will induce in the public ways how to carefully relate with animate and inanimate objects as well as will make them live and act with the sense of always being on guard to avoid spread of the pandemic. Basic Medical Sciences should in this awareness programme extend their horizons to the uneducated and socially handicap people (mostly in rural areas). The education on the dangers of a pandemic should be communicated to people in this
category in the language best understood by them. In other words, sufficient and
efficient manpower should be made available so as to make sure that the
information is comprehensively decoded by all categories of people.
Furthermore, it is important to ensure that awareness programme like this
should be emphasized to the people, stating the consequences and fear that is
imminent if they are not informed. This also means that the Basic Medical Sciences will have to work in collaboration with the leadership of the of the locality to be educated so that the importance of the programme would be stressed to them. Education and awareness programme is very important as this will help the
public to live with the sense of carefulness and consciousness.
Approaches to Sanitized Environment: Basic Medical Sciences as a team that has to do with health on a good scale can ensure sanitized environment. Basic Medical Science can collaborate with other voluntary bodies and health agencies to ensure that the environment is kept clean. Keeping a sanitized environment is an approach that can ensure a pandemic free world. Pandemic is an epidemic that has become global and of course starts from a particular region; So if our primary environment is kept clean, the issue of a pandemic will remain in the realm of theory and not a reality. The untidy environment will serve as a building block or a catalyst of a pandemic.
Pandemic and its spread can also be caused by what we do to and how we interact
with our environment. It is important to note that the environment(untidy) helps in
the fast spread of a pandemic; This is so because humans have frequent interactions with their non-living environment in different ways. Researches made proved that the Human, Animal and Environmental health are interconnected. Keeping a sanitized environment is a sure positive response to a future pandemic.
Addressing the Human-animal Relationship: Addressing the human-animal
relationship in respect to a future pandemic will a far way help to prevent the sting
of its occurrence. Understanding the interactions between animals and humans is very critical in preventing the outbreak of a pandemic. In researches made lately,
there is substantial evidence of pathogen movement in domestic animals. A recent
survey of all recognized human pathogens that over half are zoonotic and nearly all
of the most important human pathogens originated as zoonosis before adapting to
humans. The three most devastating pandemics in human history, the black death, Spanish influenza and HIV/AIDS were caused by zoonoses. Underlying these
patterns are specific health challenges arising from the multi-host ecology of
animal infections. These complexities can be addressed by harnessing the integrative power and mechanistic insights attainable from analysis of population dynamic models of the animal-human transmission. Expressing to the public the risk factors attached to an unchecked animal-human relationship keep any oncoming pandemic unstaged. In as much as the relationship between humans, domestic animal and farm animals cannot be totally discouraged, it is of great important to keep these animals on a steady and regular health watch. There are lots of diseases with epidemic potentials that were traced from wildlife and
domestic animals (as exemplified by swine flu and avian flu) with greater risk occurring where humans interact. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic thought
to originate in a wildlife has shown enormous damage in the economy and progress of world. While preparation for a pandemic is a critically important health task, Basic Medical Science can help stress the risk factors for disease infection and
transmission at the animal-human interface because understanding these factors
may identify opportunities for disease prevention and outbreak containment.
Embark on Research Programmes: It is usually said, “knowledge is power”. The
place of knowledge cannot be occupied by any other factor in responding to a future pandemic. The Medical Science has to follow new trends in order to stifle any disease before it emerges and become widespread. The increasing threat of emerging and reemerging infectious disease outbreaks demand research and development strategy. Recent pandemics have highlighted gaping holes in our ability to make good research and deploy medical responses that will not only help identify and contain outbreaks, but care for those affected paradventure it emerges.
To ensure successful resolution of any future outbreak, Basic Medical Science must have a robust research programme. Readiness for infectious diseases (with
pandemic potential) requires investments in research in myriad discipline, including basic biomedical research to understand the symptomology of any suspected outbreak. In parallel, population policy and implementation research is needed to understand the delivery system that would work best for any future pandemic. In the issues pertaining to global emergencies, the Medical science has to be galvanized with the government and civil society to proffer necessary responses in order to successfully manage future. To build better defense against the threat of pandemics, we must need step up in our research scale. Research programme will go a long way to keep any pandemic and its injury unrealized.


The Basic Medical Science can singly and collaboratively work to prevent any oncoming pandemics. Proffering aids such as public awareness and education, ensuring clean environment and good research programme can make the
issue of pandemic remain a taught theory. Complementary response of the government and the general public would ensure any future pandemic a stay in the
realm of unreality.

GOITRE.

What is Goitre?

Goitre is an unusual or abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting in the swelling of the neck. The thyroid gland is located below the Adam’s apple and it produces the thyroid hormones that functions in body temperature, digestion and excitability. It’s inflammation and abnormal enlargement that causes either smooth or lumpy swelling in the neck explains what is known as goitre. This swelling do vary in sizes and moves during deglutition (swallowing). This swelling is not fun to live with. Aside the joint complications and disease that accompanies the swelling, the lumps around the neck is really tedious on patients. Patients feel this heaviness around their face. Even swallowing becomes uneasy for them.


Symptoms of Goitre.
Swelling of the neck
Tight throat
Hoarseness of voice
Difficulty in swallowing
Coughing
Difficult breathing
Hyperthyroidism associated with increased blood pressure, tremor and tachycardia (increased heart rate)
Hypothyroidism associated with low blood pressure and bradycardia (decreased blood rate).


CAUSES OF GOITRE.
Iodine deficiency: Globally lack of sufficient iodine in meal intake is the most common cause of goitre. When the level of thyroid stimulating hormones rise in the body, thyroid gland uses iodine to make hormones but when iodine is in limited availability, thyroid hormone formation becomes reduced consequently it’s secretion. In attempts to meet the body’s demands, the gland tries to make more which causes the multiplication of the cells leading to the swelling (goitre).
Selenium deficiency: selenium deficiency contributes to the cause of goitre. Presence of selenium helps prevents thyroid disease. I
Hashimoto thyroiditis: This is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the thyroid consequently the rise of goitre.
Cyanide poisoning: When there is a reduce content of iodine, high cyanide intake from cassava and other carbs food causes cretinism and goitre.
Graves disease: This disease induces body reactions that produces antibodies that attacks the thyroid gland causing oversecretion. This overstimulation causes the thyroid gland to enlarge.
Other causes of goitre includes hormone changes during pregnancy or menopause, thyroid cancer and exposure to radiation.
Women are more prone to having goitre.
Treatment.


Treatment of goitre may depend on how the thyroid gland has become enlarged. A small Goitre that causes less symptoms may not require medical treatment. It disappears on its own or may become enlarged.
However, goitre when it has become too obvious and lumpy may require medical attention. Underactive thyroid(hypothyroidism) may require replacement of the of the thyroid hormones in which case levothyroxine is prescribed. If the thyroid is inflamed, corticosteroids or aspirin is prescribed. Patients with Goitre caused by hyperthyroidism are administered propylthiouracil or tapazole. In some cases radioactive iodine is used to treat overactive thyroid gland. This is administered orally to the thyroid gland where it destroys overactive thyroid cells. It should be noted that while oral radioactive iodine destroys overactive thyroid cells, it may as well cause an underactive thyroid gland.
Surgery may also be done if thyroid gland becomes unevenly or abnormally enlarged.
Goitre is not only caused by reduced iodine as seen above but lack of iodine results in uneven swelling called goite and other adverse complications that ranges to mental disabilities in kids. So it is important to take this nutrients in our diet. For instance, an average adult should have an intake of about 150 micrograms per day. Food sources of iodine includes fish, seaweeds, shrimps, iodized salt, milk, cheese, e.t.c. The intake of the nutrients should also be on check so as not to suffer adverse complications from overactive thyroid glands.
Do leave a comment below and let us know how you’re feeling.

FOOD FOR HEALTHY EYESIGHT.

FOOD FOR HEALTHY EYESIGHT.
See food that helps prevent poor and maintain good sight.
So many people with one eye problem are worried with no hope of ever getting a good sight. Research noted that 40% of the eye problems in the world can be prevented. Here, points on how some of the food and fruits we eat can help maintain a healthy sight will be emphasized.
Whether your eye isn’t what it used to be or there are noticeable deviations, some of these problems can be prevented or properly managed to maintain a healthy eye.
Some of the problems includes glaucoma, blurry vision, cataracts, dry eye e.t.c. These problems are really not fun to live with. Imagine someone 25years of age who has been accustomed to glasses at age 10, of course it hasn’t really been okay living with some transparent eye case.
Well, if you noticed any symptom or any deviations it is advisable you see a doctor as soon as possible.
Anyways, there are chemicals that help maintain a good eye that are contents and components of the food we eat. Some of these substances include:
Lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids).


Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids. Carotenoids are good helpers for a healthy eye. Lutein and zeaxanthin are pigments derived from greeny vegetables.
They are antioxidants with lots of health benefits especially known for protection of the eyes. They are found as supplements of some of the food we consume. Lutein and zeaxanthin help to protect our eyes from unstable molecules produced from exposure to excess light. These molecules produced are capable of damaging the cells when the eyes becomes uncontrollably exposed to rays. Lutein and zeaxanthin help fight against these molecules produced so that they lose their potency to damage our eyes.
Lutein and zeaxanthin help to reduce many eye pronlems that tends to damage our eye cells. They help prevent cataracts from being formed in our eyes as well as decelerate the progress of Age-related macular degeneration to blindness.
Anyways consumptions of these antioxidants should be properly checked as unmanaged excess becomes a toxicity to health of the consumer and can cause diseases like Alzheimer.
Retinol, Ascorbic acid and Tocopherol( Vitamin A, C, E).


Viamin A , C and E are antioxidants essential for proper eyesight. They exert preventive and maintaining functions on the eye so as to effect stress free sight perception.
Vitamin A or retinol/retinoid is a very important component of eye protecting protein called rhodopsin. It majorly prevents the eyes from night blindness that results from it’s deficiency.
It also exerts a protective function in the cornea of the eye.
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that also prevents the eye from damaging molecules produced from rays. It keep eye problems like cataracts and blurry vision unstaged. It also prevents the progressive move of macular degeneration to blindness.
Vitamin E exists in different forms and the alpha tocopherol form protects the eye from from harmful molecules generated from light rays and in excess. It is also known to prevent the risk of macular degeneration.
Vitamin E oil though not scientifically grounded prevents eye skin wrinkles.
Vitamins essential for healthy eye can be sourced from carrot and other vegetables.
And as commonly said, Consumption of these vitamins will keep the ophthalmologist away(paraphrased).
Omega-3 fatty Acids.

Omega-3 fatty acids majorly sourced from fishes helps in the development of retinal cells. The Omega-3 fatty acids involved in the development of the rental cells is called decosahexaenoic acid(DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids also drain intraocular fluid that may cause glaucoma.It is as well know to exert regenerative function of damaged cells destroyed due to exposure to light rays.
Studies have it that Omega-3 fatty acids prevent dry eye syndrome.
So consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids keeps the eye in a healthy condition.
Zinc.
Zinc has shown it’s effect in the maintenance of good sight by preventing the progress of macular degeneration and night blindness. Zinc also maintain the health of retinal. Alongside Omega-3 fatty acids and other vitamins, zinc prevents dry eye.
It also functions cooperatively with Vitamin A, enhancing it’s transportation from the liver to the retinal to produce melanin; a pigment that prevents the eye from ultraviolet Ray’s consequently further damages of eye cells that would result from exposure to these Rays.
These chemicals mentioned above keep the eye in a steady and state thereby ensuring healthy sight. They are primarily sourced from our local meal anywhere around the globe.
Foods that ensures quality vision includes the following:
Green vegetables (spinach, broccoli, lettuce, kale).
Greeny vegetables such as spinach, kale and broccoli are good sources of lutein and zeaxanthin which absorbs blue light rays. These rays as discussed earlier are capable of destroying eye cell by producing unstable molecules. Foods like spinach broccoli also prevents blindness, macular degeneration and cataracts.
Spinach and broccoli contain nutrients that helps the eye detect contrast,in other words, the they help to maintain long-term vision of the eye. They majorly prevents the eye from high energy wave that have the potency of damaging eye cells.
Fish.
Fishes particularly salmon and mackerel are good sources of decosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acids(EPA). These are forms of Omega-3 fatty acids.
Unsaturated fatty acids as Omega-3 fatty acids help in maintenance at the eye particularly in old age. Eating meals rich in Omega-3 fatty acids helpss to prevent Age-related macular degeneration. It also prevents the formation of cataracts.
Eggs.
Eggs, whether in boiled or fried form help to keep the eye in good condition
Eggs are very rich sources of lutein and zeaxanthin which are very critical to eye health. It contains vitamin A which safeguards the cornea. Egg contains zinc that ensures soundness of the retina.
The cornea and retina cells of the eyes are kept in a healthy state by nutrients derived from consuming eggs.
Anyways, egg consumption shouldn’t be in excess as it can lead to adverse effects on the health status. It is advisable for an average adult not to consume more than three eggs per week.
Nuts.
Nuts are rich in rich in vitamin E which protects the eyes from unstable molecules of high energy rays of light. Nuts generally are protective in function , they protect the external layer of the eye ; the cornea.
Walnuts and almonds are very rich sources of Omega-3 fatty acids and may protect the eyes from diseases like macular degeneration and dry eye syndrome.
Kola nuts prevent glaucoma by reducing eye pressure. Pistachios can promote healthy blood sugar level consequently prevents blurry vision.
Red meat and oysters.
Red meat or beef absorb vitamin A from foods like carrot which protect the eye from environmental damages that are toxic to both external layers and internal cells of the eye.
Oysters are rich sources of Omega-3 fatty acids that benefits the eye greatly. Omega-3 fatty acids protects the adult eye from macular degeneration and dry eye syndrome.
Beef and oysters contain zinc that prevents Age-related sight loss and protects the retina and its vascular tissues.
Carrots.
Carrots are one food most people enjoy. Coupled with the peasant it contains is the health functions it also exerts on the eyes.
Carrots are good sources of beta carotene; the precursor of vitamin A. Vitamin A functions to ensure a good eye sight which entails a detailed mechanism. It enables one to see through the dark. It also prevents xerophthalmia (characterized by dry eye and cornea ulcer). Carrots also have in its containments, lutein which protects from the risk of macular degeneration.


These are some of the food/fruits capable of decreasing the potency of damaging particles and substances. Mention would also be made of orange, almond and sweet potatoes which also contains pigments that help maintain a healthy eye sight. Garden egg also controls blood sugar and prevents blurry sight. It’s spongy structure improyes the eye generally.
Also to avoid eye problems, one should maintain low intake of food with high and complex sugar as these tend to increase issues related to eye problems like blurry and hazy vision.

Smoking also impairs eye sight and can even lead to vision loss if not stopped. Smoking has a lot of detrimental effects on the life of the smoker and the eyes are not excluded from the areas of the human organs that gets the impact. Smoking increases the tendency of Age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts and dry eyes.

Saturated and trans fat affects the eyes negatively. They are capable of blocking the arteries and capillaries. And if these blood vessels especially those pertaining to the eyes are blocked, alot of eye complications are bound to occur. That’s why it is very necessary to limit consumption of food with high content of trans and saturated fat so as to limit the tendency of negative eye effects. Examples of such food amongst others are fried foods, popcorns, crackers e.t.c.

These are some of the activities that we can personally carry out with less stress to maintain a healthy sight.
Notwithstanding, it is very necessary you see the doctor as soon as you notice any deviation from your normal sight as early consultation prevents unlikely conditions from developing.
Let us know what you think and how you are feeling, leave a comment below.

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BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES; PROPOSING A PRACTICAL APPROACH IN RESPONDING FUTURE PANDEMICS.

Basic Medical Sciences can act as organized body or team so as to giverealistic responses to future pandemic consequently contain its deleterious effect.With regards to this paper, it would be necessary to first, define and explain what apandemic is, its effect and consequence of impromptu response to it.A pandemic is an epidemic of an infectious … Continue reading BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES; PROPOSING A PRACTICAL APPROACH IN RESPONDING FUTURE PANDEMICS.